Friday, August 1, 2014

Dilip Kumar: An Act of Grace

For Dilip Kumar acting is, well, an act of grace, a dignified investigation of an emotion or a character study. He is refined; he is stylish even while negotiating the coarsest of reality. All that meditative poise and calculated mannerism never took anything away from the inherent realism of the situation. Managing the paradox of portraying reality with intensely personal style has been his most astounding achievement. Realism for him is not reaffirming a stereotype in its most documentary details. For him realism is exploring the core of reality with essentials of one’s being and infusing it with an interpretation that is honest to the feelings of the actor. It is this honesty of feelings that pulls off the delicate dance of stylized reality – the ‘art of sweet excesses’

Dilip Kumar can be easily credited with laying down the grammar of Hindi film acting. He rescued Hindi film acting from the hyperbolic style of earlier time. The high theatricality of Parsee theater was the order of the day. Along with Ashok Kumar, Motilal, Balraj Sahni he brought dramatic changes in expected parameters of the art of screen acting. The thrust was on bringing the theatricality of the screen acting down as the medium of cinema was demanding change of the rules. Camera had different rules than stage and screen acting was still coming to grips with that. Keen student, that Dilip Kumar was, learnt the potential of the still new medium and synched his strengths with the demands of the celluloid storytelling. Consequently, Dilip Kumar stands as a marker from where modern screen acting begins. What makes his perceptive embrace of the technical details remarkable was his success in getting the stardom mix right. He was, arguably, the first actor to establish a star persona based on nuanced acting and mannerism. This was different from Master Vitthal or Nadia who were creation of a genre and were replaceable by anyone given that the technicians remained the same.  Dilip Kumar on the other hand was bringing inherent star elements to the table. Raj Kapoor and Dev Anand were also doing the same. His sometime mentor Ashok Kumar also stands in the same league. However, Dilip Kumar’s contribution was more far reaching then the others.

Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand and Dilip Kumar were the stars who really shaped stardom in Hindi Films, later to be redefined by Rajesh Khanna who brought rock star hysteria to the mix. While the pioneering influence of each and every member of the troika is beyond question, Dilip Kumar stands apart. Dev Anand left the drama and power of the earlier roles for a caricature of himself and his increasing descent was kept tolerable by his joy for life, music and engaging themes. Raj Kapoor contributed more as a director- producer or creator of great teams then as an actor. His uni-dimensional Raju is an enduring icon of its time. This Chaplinsque tramp with heart of gold carried many a complex social issues of his times on his shoulders. While its services are acknowledged we can’t overlook its limits in histrionics department. It was left to Dilip to create, then open, doors in various aspects of acting. He redefined tragic hero by owning it. His 1940s to 1960s period had many performances where he poured agony on screen and made being a loser cool. Devdas may have become prototype of a certain genre but his torment found forceful expression in many other outings such as Dilip in Andaz, Ashok in Babul, Vijay in Jogan, Shamu in Deedar, Devendra and Anand in Madhumati, Ganga in Gunga Jumna
His mild depression and consultation with the psychiatrist of British Monarch in London have moved into folklore. That apart,  we need to see his success in tragic roles from the point of view of new language that he was laying down. Silences, slow moistening of eye, tonalities of dialogue delivery and expressions were all coming to Indian screen for the first time. It’s a measure of his craft that original ingredients of sorrow on screen hold valid even today. He needed new tropes to blend the inherent rebelliousness of his characters that went side by side with their tragedy and pathos. He was not only agonising but was also refusing to accept the easy solutions or existing traditions. Devdas may be a loser but he took his defeat and refused to compromise with his new reality. Similarly other tragic character showed a principled core which rebelled against bending to social mores. This conflict needed new grammar of acting to convey. Along with the grammar, dramatic capabilities were needed to establish that on celluloid. Dilip Kumar had the intelligence, stamina and talent to be up to the task. His presence at that critical juncture of the evolution of cinema in India cannot be overstated. Lord Meghnath Desai called him Nehru’s Hero as he was representing the conflicts that the new nation was facing. 

If Dilip kumar had stopped there, he would have still had stupendous repertoire. But, then, Dilip Kumar is not an ordinary talent. He went on to become complete actor by adding comedy, action, romance and even dance to his performances. Some of the most hilarious moments of Indian screen are created by this ‘tragedy king’ and if you hold a poll on most romantic moment in Hindi film so called 'feather scene' from Mughal-e-Azam will figure very high. Like tragedy, Dilip Kumar brought his unique refinement to all these new areas also. He could pull off buffoonery in Ram aur Shyam, Ganga Jamuna and Bairaag with all his refined mannerism intact. His debt is acknowledged by almost all who came after him.  His second innings was not very successful though he had memorable roles in Karma, Shakti, Kranti, Mashaal etc. However, thing to be noted here is that he was the first to blaze the trail of second innings. Before him no one created a niche for senior actors to play leading role. While he does not have a Chini Kum or Black to his credit, he created a space which was ably exploited by Amitabh Bachchan, perhaps the only complete actor that can be compared to the senior thespian.
Born almost 92 years ago in Peshawar to Hindko-speaking Pathan parents, Yusuf Khan was Fourth among 12 children. Sometime in the late twenties, the family moved to Bombay, where his father Ghulam Sarwar Khan set up a fruit business. Devika Rani who was looking after the affairs of Bombay Talkies after death of her husband Himanshu Rai noticed young Yusuf and offered him job with high salary of Rs 500. “Yusuf Khan, she felt, was not a name to go well with a romantic hero. Of the three names suggested to him – Jehangir, Vasudev and Dilip Kumar – he chose the last. This, he thought, was also appropriate for it would hide his new occupation from his conservative father, who loathed all ‘nautankwalas’, as he used to call those associated with the cinema.” However, he was found out by the father who came to accept his new profession only after seeing him in Shaheed. Dilip Kumar went on doing 63 films in more than six decade long career. Numerable awards including Dadasaheb Phalke and Nishan-e-Pak came his way. The number of films is very less but Dilip Kumar preferred to immerse himself in the roles that he did. Unlike Amitabh Bachchan, there are lesser sorry film choices by Dilip Kumar. It is an oeuvre that is truly critical to the history of cinema in the subcontinent.  

Dilip Kumar along with Amitabh Bachchan forms the twin peaks of Hindi Cinema. His contribution is immense and pleasure of watching him is unsurpassed. He is a sublime presence that attracts with its refinement and sophistication. In him we find a really successful marriage of classicism and mass appeal. Long live the Emperor. 

-Dhiraj Singh

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